Skin Lightening Ingredients:

1. Arbutin: it can have melanin-inhibiting properties. Melanocytes contain an enzyme- triosinoase. They an activate anytime they come in contact with UV light which is why you'll notice tan if you are exposed to sun for longer periods. That's when arbutin comes in-it blocks tyrosinase and reduces tanning.

2. Kojic acid:
Kojic acid is effective for inhibiting melanin production. Kojic dipalmitate is a good antioxidant Kojic acid Is a natural acid that is primarily used for lightening skin pigmentation. It is an effective, safer alternative to hydroquinone.

3. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate:
It is potent antioxidant (shown to be able to protect skin from oxidative damages). Can improve appearance of aged and fragile skin. Widely used as add-on ingredient in skin-lightening products to correct hyper pigmentation and age spots. Antioxidant effect can be increased by adding L-ascorbyl palmitate and/or vitamin E.

4. Alpha hydroxy acids: (AHAs) -
primarily in the form of lactic acid and glycolic acid — are the most researched forms of AHAs because they have a molecular size that allows effective penetration into the top layers of skin. It is believed that their benefit is in helping cell turnover rates and removing unhealthy or abnormal layers of superficial skin cells (exfoliation) where hyperpigmented cells can accumulate. However, other research has shown that lactic and glycolic acids can indeed inhibit melanin production separate from their actions as an exfoliant on skin.

5. Niacinamide:
It is claimed to be a much safer alternative when , applied topically for skin or genitalia whitening. Niacinamide has no adverse side-effects. It also promotes acne reduction, increases skin moisture, and reduces fine wrinkles.